Part 5: Visual research (1) – An overview

Link to the entire document incl visuals: D1: My personal project – Visual research – an overview

Looking at my own works, recent assignments, and my mind map, I decided to do a broader visual research on various aspects. So far I decided to look deeper into the following aspects as they appeared to be my stronger and engaging topics, but still more to learn of course.

My reasoning behind (from my mind map):

  • Drawing approach => abstract markings, expressiveness, multilayer (translucent)
  • Approach => expressiveness, ambiguity, experimental, simplification, physical intense
  • Material => Use of powders, fusing materials (translucent)
  • Atmosphere => translucent
  • Emotion & Feeling => bodily awareness
  • Conceptual  => disguise, distortion
  • Outdoor => site and location drawing
by theme
  1. Disguise
  2. Distortion
  3. Ambiguity
  4. Bodily awareness
  5. Site and location as a main subject
by drawing techniques and approaches
  1. Expressive physical approach
  2. Use of powder, minerals
  3. Translucent drawing techniques

Areas that I excluded at this moment are: reflections, figure outdoors, urban spaces. I will see during this overview research whether this topics will be tackled as well or not.

I collected images in a random order first and as the research became quite extensive I  grouped them into above categories.

How I think artist are linked to those topics:

Disguise: Marlene Dumas, Nigel Henderson, Alex Kanefsky, Rachel Lumsden, Tun Maying, Jenny Saville, Cindy Sherman

Distortion: Expressionism and Cubism, Francis Bacon, Natalie Frank, Max Gubler, Nigel Henderson, Wangechi Mutu, Jessica Rismondi, Nicola Samorì

Ambiguity: Georges Braque, Giorgio di Chirico, Salvador Dali, Guy Denning, Inci Eviner, Robert Fundis, Antony Gomler, David Hockney, Jasper Johns, Alex Kanefsky, Agnes Martin, Jessica Rismondi, Jenny Saville, Tatiana Trouvé, Sam Vernon, John Virtue

Bodily awareness:  Frank Auerbach, Vija Celmins, Mary-Clare Foá, Lucian Freud, Hans Hartung, Deborah Harty, Claude Heath, Jasper Johns, Juul Kraijer, William Kentridge, Giuseppe Penone

Site/Location: Vija Celmins, Katie Downie, Mary-Clare Foá, Ilana Halperin, Deborah Harty,  Emma Stibbon, John Virtue

Expressive physical drawing approach: Frank Auerbach, Alberto Burri, Joan Eardley, Max Ernst, Alberto Giacometti, Claude Heath, Anselm Kiefer, Egon Schiele

Use of powders/minerals: Vija Celmins, Ilana Halperin (‘geologic intimacy’), Jan Jedlicka, Anselm Kiefer, Emma Stibbon

Translucent drawing technique:  Jasper Johns, Giuseppe Penone, Brooks Salzwedel, Jenny Saville, Annette Robinson

Outcome: Visual Map

Stefan513593 - part5 - visual research - map

Stefan513593 – part5 – visual research – map

From this map I felt attracted to certain artists and their works:

  • Jenny Saville (Disguise, Ambiguity, Translucent): for her techniques of limited pallets, blurred and detailed markings, and translucent drawing technique
  • Alex Kanevsky (Disguise): for his light deconstruction approach with the figure merging partly with the surrounding space.
  • Jessica Rismondi (Distortion, Ambiguity): for her multi layer techniques, partly deconstructed figures, simplified forms, and experimental drawing approach
  • Nigel Henderson (Distortion): for his partly shown figurative works with overlay of different images on the figure, shaping the body of the figure
  • John Virtue (Ambiguity, Site): for his intimate approach to location and translation into an ambiguous black&white picture
  • Jasper Johns (Ambiguity, Translucent): for his use of various materials and supports, and his exploration of paper edges
  • Tatiana Trouve (Ambiguity): for her simplified landscapes with only partly drawn subjects and focus areas
  • David Hockney (Ambiguity): for his drawing /sketches with edge control
  • Deborah Harty (Site): for her phenomenological approach on site and exploration of sensual experience and recalled memories
  • Giuseppe Penone (Translucent, Bodily awareness): for his approach to natural subjects and use to translucent technique
  • Emma Stibbon (Site, Powders): for her intimate approach to location and use of powder material for creating atmosphere
  • Frank Auerbach (Expressive physical approach): for his intense physical approach especially in charcoal and searching for forms
  • Joan Eardley (Expressive physical approach): for her expressive way of depicting subjects in a simplified way
  • Juul Kraijer (Bodily awareness): for her investigative mark making approach with melting the figure shape with other subjects

This is still quite a list that I need to reduce more. Some of them are already known to me rather well (Frank Auerbach, Jenny Saville, Emma Stibbon). I have to see how to continue and to find appropriate mark marking and techniques that can support my subject.

For the time time I would like to see how I can combine site/location with figurative work in a new way.


  • This was a pretty broad overview, quite time consuming. I definitely need to reduce this and look deeper on a few artists that really can bring me further on this project.
  • To make a visual map and link it to the ideas and thoughts of my project helped me to understand better the territory.
  • Some artists came back to me as my ‘favorites’. Am I too biased already? However, with this research I found new artists and new approaches.
  • An additional topic that I discovered is distance and closeness: What conveys an image from near distance (abstract marks?) and what from far distance (atmosphere) (see work of Agnes Martin an others)

To do:

  • Markings: Experiment with simplified and ambiguous markings on any chosen subject
  • Site: Explore sensual feelings while drawing on a chosen site
  • Testing techniques pigment, translucent. Perhaps with further contextual research.
  • Further drawings in context of this research
  • Re-thinking categories and find my subject
  • Re-focus on a few artists that can push my limits

Detailed overview about the artists for inspiration (by chosen category)


Cindy Sherman (b.1954)
=> disguise and masks

– ‘Untitled 512’, 2011
Chromogenic color print, 67 3/4 x 114 7/8″ (202.6 x 347.6 cm)
[Online images]  New York: MoMA. Available from: [accessed 02 Nov 2015]
=> In this work Sherman poses herself in one of the many costumes in front of a natural environment. Contrasting to her more often interior works.

Marlene Dumas
=> Dumas works in ink, watercolour and oil. Her technique on watercolour is quite special as she works pretty fluid on the paper and on the floor.
– ‘The Cover-Up‘, 1994
Oil on canvas (198 x 99 cm)
[Online images]  Saatchi Gallery. Available from: [accessed 05 Nov 2015]

– ‘Helena’s Dream’, 2008
Oil on canvas (130 x 110 cm)
[Online images]  Saatchi Gallery. Available from: [accessed 05 Nov 2015]
=> closed eyes, distant from the viewer, with an inside view (reflection)

Jenny Saville (b. 1970)
=> pulsing pictures, multilayer, ambiguous and blurred markings
in: Baetschmann, O. ed al (2014)
– see my exhibition notes: post

Especially her works
– ‘Compass‘, 2013 (p.45)
Charcoal and pastel on paper on board (151 x 200 cm)

– ‘Oxyrhynchus‘, 2012-14 (p. 46)
Pastel and charcoal on canvas (170 x 250 cm)

=> multilayers of markings, limited palette, and contrasting free expressive strokes and more detailed rendering of the faces

Rachel Lumsden (b. 1968)
=> interiors with disguises figures, deconstruction, movement, ambiguity of figurative forms, working large scale for bodily awareness
in: Luna, 2015. Image Courtesy Galerie Bernard Jordan Zürich

– Leap-Minute’, 2015
Oil on canvas (210×170 cm)

– Hovercraft’, 2015
Oil on canvas (210 x 170 cm)

Nigel Henderson (1917 – 1985)
=> destruction, decay, works in the context of trauma of WW2
– ‘Head of a Man‘, 1956
Photographs on paper on cardboard (159.7 x 121.6 cm)
[Online image] Tate Gallery. Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]

Alex Kanevsky (b. 1963)
=> disguised and ambiguous through overlays of abstract markings. Pulsating and energy loaded pictures. Quite in context of Jenny Saville
– ‘J.F.H.’, 2010
Oil on panel (18 x 18 in)
in: McCann, 2015, p.110
[Online image] Dolby Chadwick Gallery. Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

– ‘J.W.I. Twice‘, 2014
Oil on panel (36 x 36 in)
[Online image] Dolby Chadwick Gallery. Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

Tun Myaing (b. )
– ‘Hallway Study 1‘, 2010
Acrylic and oil on paper (7 x 12 in)
in: McCann, 2015, p.41
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]
=> blurred moving figure as a silhouette, dark-light effects


Nigel Henderson: see above under Disguise

Francis Bacon
=> see my research on ‘Face
=> Bacon heavily distorts the faces of his models till they are condensed down to main features

Max Gubler (1898 – 1973)
=> distorted and destructed portraits
– see my exhibition notes: post

Jessica Rimondi (b. 1987)
=> textures, indicated lines, distorted faces, senses.

In Rismondi’s own words: “Consideration [of] the connection between the physicality of the painting material/gesture within the psychoanalytical approach onto the thematic of questioning subjectivity in the representation of the portrayed object. ” (in context of Jenna Saville, Lucian Freud, and Cy Twombly)
– ‘Respirandomiti‘, 2012
Mixed media on wood (150 x 150 cm)
[Online image] Available from:!Immaginandomiti/zoom/c199t/image1ovd [accessed 16 Nov 2015]
– ‘What remains 6‘, 2014
Mixed media on photo printed on 300 g/sqm design paper (60 x 90 cm)
[Online image] Available from:!what%20remains%203/zoom/c199t/image3zt[accessed 16 Nov 2015]

– ‘Where you are no.6’, 2012
Mixed media on paper (31 x 45 cm)
[Online image] Available from:!Where%20you%20are%20n.3/zoom/c199t/i01bia [accessed 16 Nov 2015]

Nicola Samorì (b. 1977)
=> surface as material skin transcribing the memory of the process, distortion of old masterpieces, expression that is tangible to the senses
– ‘Fondamenta della carne‘, 2014
Oil on copper (180 x 110 cm)
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]

Natalie Frank (b. 1980)
=> Distorted figure
– ‘Woman‘, 2013
Oil, enamel, and collage on board (54 x 76 in)
in: McCann, 2015, p.199
[Online image]  Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

Wangechi Mutu (b. 1972)
=> ‘Sketchbook drawings‘ in pen and ink, collage on paper
in: Malbert, 2014 (p.34-5)
=> simplified line (outline) drawings, partly with embedded collage items,

– ‘Ectopic Pregnancy‘, 2004
Glitter, ink, collage on found medical illustration paper (46 x 31 cm)
[Online image] Saatchi Gallery. Available from: [accessed 10 Nov 2015]


(See also my literature research in separate post)

Alex Kanefsky: see above under Disguise

Jessica Rismondi: see above under Distortion

Jenny Saville: see above under Disguise

Giorgio di Chirico (1909 – 1978)
– ‘Mystery and Melancholy of a Street‘, 1914
[Online image] Available from:  [accessed 5 Nov 2015]
=> ambiguity in drawing system

Georges Braque (1882  -1963)
– ‘Still Life on a Table: “Duo pour flute”, 1913-14
Oil on canvas (45.7 × 55.2 cm)
[Online image] New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art. Available from: [accessed 5 Nov 2015]
=> ambiguity in mark system

Agnes Martin (1912 – 2004)
-‘Rose‘, 1965
Acrylic and graphite on canvas (6 ft x 6 ft)
[Online image] Philadelphia Museum of Art. Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]
=> this work is so different depending on the distance the viewer looks at it. From close-up one can see the tiny little regular parallel lines. From the distance this picture conveys a special atmosphere. I think this kind of close-up and/or distance is a theme that contemporary artists play quite with.

Salvador Dali (1904 – 1989)
=> example of ‘anamorph’:
‘The Endless Enigma‘, 1938
Oil on canvas (114.5 x 146.5 cm)
[Online image] Museo National Centro de Arte. Reina Sofia. Available from:  [accessed 16 Nov 2015]

John Virtue (b. 1947)
=> bold contrast in black & white, ambiguous markings. Capturing the atmospheric sensation of the location is a key element in Virtue’s works.
– see my visual research: post

Jasper Johns (b. 1930)
=> Master of the ambiguous marks and use of plastic film as support. 
– ‘Untitled’, 1983
Ink on synthetic polymer sheet (63 x 92.1 cm)
[Online image] New York: MoMA. Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]

– ‘Skin with O’Hara Poem’, 1963-65
Lithograph (55.9 x 86.4 cm)
[Online image] New York: MoMA. Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]
– ‘From Untitled painting’, 1964-5
Charcoal, oil and on paper (55.6. x 86 cm)
in: Padgett, J. (2015) ‘Notations – Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process’ post ‘Jasper Johns‘  [Web log post] Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]
=> drawing beyond the edges

-‘Untitled‘, 2013
Ink on plastic (69.9 x 91.4 cm)
[Online image] New York: MoMA. Available from: ‘The Inscrutable Gestures of Jasper Johns’  [accessed 12 Nov 2015]
=> drawing on plastic sheets with ink with pen and brush. With a element of chance (non absorbent surface with the ink in an unpredictable drying process) and control (visible shapes)

Robert Fundis (b. 1977 )
=> dealing with psychological and existential questions related to human conditions, works with paradox, ambiguity, movement and serenity

– ‘Presence‘, 2012
Oil and spray paint on canvas (71 x 71 in)
in: McCann, 2015, p.2
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 02 Nov 2015]

-‘Deconstruct / Reconstruct‘, 2011
Oil on canvas (62.5 x 50.5 in)
[Online image] New York: Anthony Brunelli Gallery. Available from: [accessed 02 Nov 2015]

-‘Sequence / Memory‘, 2011
Charcoal, pencil, ink, jointed compound on panel (26.5 x 33.5 in)
[Online image] New York: Anthony Brunelli Gallery. Available from: [accessed 02 Nov 2015]

Tatiana Trouvé (b. 1968)
=> multilayered drawings, exploring spaces, sharp and blurred marks; boundaries of real and illusion, her drawings look like installations
– ‘Untitled, from the series Remanence‘, 2010
Paper on canvas, pastel, graphite, aluminium (125 x 210 cm)
[Online image] Paris: Gallery Perrotin. Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

– ‘Untitled, from the series Intranquillity‘, 2010
Paper on canvas, cork, copper, varnish, burn mark (153 x 240 cm)
[Online image] Paris: Gallery Perrotin. Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

Sam Vernon (b. )
– ‘How Ghosts sleep: Seattle’ 2015
=> build up imagery through sequential xeroxing and drawing and modifications in photoshop, in reference of afro deco, masks and disguise
Available from: [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

Antony Gomler (b. 1950)
=> works in casein and carbon
– from the series ‘Feeling Material‘, 2001-12 [accessed 10 Nov 2015]

– from the series ‘Body‘, 2009-11
in: Malbert, 2014 (p.52-3)
[Online image]  Available from: [accessed 10 Nov 2015]
=> body and space, a fugitive image that evokes human presence

David Hockney (b. 1937)
=> I like especially his drawings as they highlight good edge control, focus areas, contrasting details and more vague areas

– ‘The Artist’s Mother‘, 1972
Ink on paper (43 x 35.5 cm)
Collection of the artist. in: Hockney, Geldzahler, 1988 (p.259)
=> focus details and

– ‘Yves-Marie and Mark in Paris‘, 1975
Crayon on paper (65 x 50 cm)
Collection of the artist. in: Hockney, Geldzahler, 1988 (p.282)
=> edge control (blur and sharp) and simplification

– ‘Henry‘, 1973
Lithograph (60 x 30 cm)
in: Hockney, Geldzahler, 1988 (p.282)
=> how white on black can give a different appeal and message

Inci Eviner (b. 1956)
-‘Monkey on a branch‘, 2010
Acrylic and silk screen on canvas (190 x 205 cm)
in: Malbert, 2014 (p.208)
=> line drawing, strictly back/white with a collage piece shaping the the torso (upper wear), alongside more blurred marks for the tree

Guy Denning (b. 1965):
=> an ambiguous and simplified drawing approach in chalk and charcoal.
=> see my research on figure drawing: post

Bodily awareness:

Jasper Johns: see above under Ambiguity

Giuseppe Penone (b.1947)

Penone is know for his sculptural works mostly in wood. His drawings are less know but equally an important part of his work:
relationship between nature and human beings
– traces, reveal and disguise,
– not the idea is in the center, but: the loop from body through touch/sense and back to body (bodily awareness)
=> use of tape and pigments (as in his work ‘Le Foglie della pelle‘, 2004)

=> a theme: skin (ital. pelle), around natural elements.
Penone’s drawings are at times very large in scale and he applies repeate fine lines from the middle till the drawing takes great space on the wall
This fine rendering reminds me of -> Peter Peri (see here)
My take away: How to work on a relationship theme, usage of tape for disguise (conceal), skin a special theme that captures nature as well as the human figure

Claude Heath (b.1964)
=> blindfolded, simultaneous left and right hand drawings (ref. ‘Drawing projects‘, 2011, Black Dog. Available from:

– ‘Eucalyptus‘, 2001
screen print (66.4 x 80.8 cm)
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 16 Nov 2015]

Mary-Clare Foá (b.)
=> capturing the sound in her garden in a series of drawings as a kind of stave to be repeated back into sounds
– ‘Drawing the Sound in My Garden‘, 2008
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 16 Nov 2015]

Hans Hartung (1904 – 1989)
=> leading abstract painter after WW2, clusters of lines, repeated gestures, forms that are comparable to natural forms
Our organic knowledge, whether it is of the flow of blood or of the force which is in a growing stem, finds its parallel, its equivalent, in what we create.” (H Hartung)

– ‘L10‘, 1957
Lithograph on paper (52 x 32 cm)
[Online image] Tate Gallery. Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]

William Kentridge
=> “Thinking evolves through activity” (Kentridge’s word on his approach to film making), works in charcoal
– see my visual research: post

Lucian Freud (1922 – 2011)
=> his unfinished portraits. Through not-finishing (?) the faces are the focal point, not distracted by surrounding elements, quite a contemporary approach.
– ‘Self portrait‘, 1956
Oil on canvas (61 x 61 cm), private collection
in: Haag, Sharp, 2013, p.159

– ‘Francis Bacon‘, 1956-7
Oil and charcoal on canvas (), private collection
in: Haag, Sharp, 2013, p.244
[Online images]  Available from:  [accessed 2 Nov 2015]

Juul Kraijer (b.1970)
=> Kraijer combines figure and nature into one overlapping drawing highlighting certain resemblances between human feature and nature (e.g. veins and branches). The idea of a bifold vision: external with the eyes, inner vision (reflective). Ambiguous drawings with contradictions reflecting the artist’s idea of closeness between humans and animal, vegetable world and the idea of betrayal.

– ‘Untitled‘ 2007,  Charcoal on paper (125.5 x 270.5 cm)
[Online image] Private collection. Available from: [accessed 09 Nov 2015]

– ‘Untitled‘ 1999, Charcoal and pen on paper (24 x 15.5 cm)
[Online image] Private collection. Available from: [accessed 09 Nov 2015]


Mary-Clare Foá: see above under Bodily awareness

John Virtue: see above under Ambiguity


Vija Celmins (b. 1938)

=> intense and close-up interaction with material and surface
=> see my visual research: post

Katie Downie (b. 1958)
=> working on location in charcoal and ink
=> see my visual research: post

Ilana Halperin (b.1973)
– ‘Physical Geology (new landmass 2)‘, 2011
Watercolour and graphite on Fabriano paper.
[Online image] Available from:
further: [accessed 5 Nov 2015]

=> Halperin interacts with the geological phenomena and created a series of sculptures inside of the volcano structures of Iceland, undergoing the geothermal processes of that site. By that she uses natural material to form new structures.

Deborah Harty  (also OCA tutor)
– ‘Drawing is phenomenology’ and ‘Taste of tree’ (Harty and Sawdon, 2012), a phenomenological approach to drawing (absorption versus observation)

Emma Stibbon (b. 1962)
=> her iceland works, working with pigment and bold contrast, abstract markings
– see my visual research: post

Expressive physical drawing approach:

Claude Heath: see above under Bodily awareness

Frank Auerbach
=> strong physical approach on surface and medium
=> see my visual research: post

Alberto Burri (1915 – 1995)

=> Burri a process artists, in the context of post american abstract expressionism, influenced Arte Povera, and Process Art. Hard on surface, exploring and interrogation with the surface. Destruction of a pictorial image and a different approach to collage
– ‘Catrami (tars)’, 1951-54
[Online image] Available from: [accessed 12 Nov 2015]

Joan Eardley (1921 – 1963)
=> her wave studies (in context of John Virtue) and her children portraits
– ‘Girl in Yellow holding Baby‘, 1959-63
– ‘Little Glasgow Girl‘, 1958
– ‘Children and Chalked Wall, No.4‘, 1962-3
– ‘Wave Study‘,1959-62
in: Andreae, 2013 (p. 6, 128, 175, 187)
=> Eardley developed a kind of post-expressionism style with bold and blurred markings.

Max Ernst (1891 – 1976)
=> Frottages and grattages (rubbing and scraping)
– ‘The entire city’, 1934
Oil on paper laid on canvas (50.2 x 61.3 cm)
[Online image] Tate Gallery. Available from: [accessed 06 Nov 2015]

Alberto Giacometti (1901 – 1966)
=>  multiple marks to build the form
– see my visual research: post

Anselm Kiefer (b. 1945)
=> a conceptual artist, neo-expressionism, works made with nature objects, a distressed surface (scorching, blow torched)
– ‘Merkaba’, 2010
Photograph, acrylic, shellac, ash, cotton dress, burned books, and plaster coated thorn bushes in glass and steel frame (282 x 307 x 35 cm)
[Online image] London: Gagosian Gallery. Available from: [accessed 02 Nov 2015]

Egon Schiele (1890 – 1918)
=> disturbing nudes, agressive linear energy, intensity of feelings
in: Baetschmann, O. ed al (2014)
– see my exhibition notes: post

Use of powder/minerals:

Via Celmins: see above under ‘Site/location

Ilana Halperin (‘geologic intimacy’): see above under ‘Site/location

Anselm Kiefer: see above under Expressive physical drawing approach

Emma Stibbon: see above under ‘Site/location

Jan Jedlicka (b. 1956)
=> inspiration from site (Maremma) and use of nature pigment found in stones for drawing
=> see my exhibition notes


Translucent drawing technique:

Jasper Johns: see above under Bodily awareness

Giuseppe Penone: see above under Bodily awareness

Jenny Saville: see above under Ambiguity 

Anne Robinson (b. )
=> using transfer paper, drafting film, pen and ink for multilayered assemblage of individual shapes
– ‘Kinder Drawings‘ series, 2005
[Online images] Private collection. Available from: [accessed 09 Nov 2015]

Brooks Salzwedel (b.1978)
=> Works mostly in graphite and at times with coloured pencil, charcoal and water based inks of natural environments placed in a kind of misty atmosphere separated from time. Process: drawing on layered sheets (mylar, durolar, acetate with various opacity) of paper with varying opacities then coat the finished piece with resin (assemblage).  By that a visual depth is created. Resembles the kind of shadow box.

=> see my visual research and additional work in context: post

I found incidentally an article about Philip Guston (1913 – 1980)Guston was a representative of a group of spontaneous, gestural abstract painters in the 1950s. From 1970 onwards he shifted his style fro abstract to figurative rather cartoonish figures in a allegorical treatment of modern evil and more autobiographic elements.

There is some mysteries process at work at painting. I not even want to understand. Understanding more [the process of making] would not do me any good. The first think always look good and than you start doubting it

Seeking for great simplicity where the whole thing is just there and it can’t be this and that and that [additions]

Available from: ‘Philip Guston: Mysteries of the working process’ [online content] Created San Francisco: SFMOMA. 2min:55sec. [accessed 10 Nov 2015]

From art history I found the idea from the italian renaissance ‘Sfumato‘ quite fascinating
= “without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke” (Oxford Art Online)
This technique is know by Leonardo da Vinci (his work ‘Mona Lisa’, 1503-06 a good examples of blurred edges, making the portrait more alive) or  Caravaggio.
Question to me: How can I push this idea further?


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